Degree Programs

Syllabus – B.Sc. (General) Degree

 

 

Level I 

Semester I

BOT1112: Plant Diversity, Unity and Evolution (30 lecture hrs)
Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary trends of Monera, Protista, Fungi and Metaphyta, Structural diversity of non-vascular plants and vascular plants, Reproductive patterns of Monera, Protista, Fungi and Metaphyta

 

BOT1121: Scientific Approach and Biometrics (15 lecture hrs)
Scientific method, Limitations of science, Pure science vs. applied science, Introduction to biometrics, Terminology, Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, Sampling, processing and presenting data, Measures of central tendency, Measures of dispersion, Normal distribution, Binomial distribution, Poisson distribution, The basis of statistical testing, Chi-squared tests, Correlation analysis, Regression analysis, Experimental design, Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

 

BOT1131: Plant Anatomy (15 lecture hrs)
Microscopy, Form and function of cells in the plant body, Specialized cells, Glands and Secretory cells, Primary and secondary growth in stems and roots, Anomalous structures, Ecological anatomy

 

BOT1141: Botany Practicals I (45 hrs)
Laboratory exercises and fieldwork on BOT1112, BOT1121 and BOT1131

 


Level I

Semester II

BOT1212: Genetics (30 lecture hrs)
Introduction, Mendel’s laws of genetics, Chromosome morphology, Gene linkage, Crossing over and gene mapping, Sex determination and sex linkage, Probability in Mendalian inheritance and pedigree analysis, Mutations (mutagenic agents, chromosome aberration, euploids, aneuploids, autopolyploids and allopolyploids), Viral and bacterial genetics, Genetics of fungi, Extranuclear inheritance, Population genetics and Hardy-Wineberg equilibrium

 

BOT1221: Plant Systematics (15 lecture hrs)
Principles of systematics, Importance of plant systematics, Historical background, Different approaches and principals in biological classification, Species concept, Evolutionary trees and taxonomic hierarchy, Botanical nomenclature, ICBN and Phylocode system, Taxonomic data: Morphological and Reproductive biology in plant

 

BOT1231: Plant Ecology (15 lecture hrs)
Geology of Sri Lanka, Biogeography, Soils, Vegetation, Ground water, Land forms, Climate, Vegetation of Sri Lanka – Forests, Grasslands, Other vegetation types

 

BOT1241: Botany Practicals II (45 hrs)
Laboratory exercises and fieldwork on BOT1212, BOT1221 and BOT1231

 

 


 

Level II

 

Semester I

BOT2112: Basic Microbiology (30 lecture hrs)
Structure and reproduction of viruses, Classification of bacteria, Growth, Culture media, Preservation and control of microorganisms, Microbiology of soil, water and food, Medical microbiology

 

BOT2121: Plant Pathology (15 lecture hrs)
History of plant pathology, Types of pathogens and diseases, Infection and pathogenesis, Disease diagnosis, Koch’s postulates, Plant disease resistance, Effects of diseases on plants, Post harvest diseases, Plant disease epidemiology, Important plant diseases of major crops in Sri Lanka, Plant disease control and management

 

BOT2131: Molecular Biology (15 lecture hrs)
History of Molecular biology, Chemical basis of hereditary materials, Structures and properties of nucleic acids, Fine structure of genes, Control of gene expression, Protein synthesis

 

BOT2141: Botany Practicals III (45 hrs)
Laboratory exercises on BOT2112, BOT2121 and BOT213

 

 

Semester II

BOT2212: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (30 lecture hrs)
Plant water relations – cell water relations, soil water relations, H2O absorption and transport, stomatal physiology, mineral nutrition, phloem translocation. Energy relations in cells and plants – respiration, photosynthesis, nitrogen metabolism, fatty acid metabolism. Plant growth and development – plant growth and growth measurements, plant growth hormones and their applications, photoperiodism and vernalization, plant movements, physiology of flowering, seed and bud dormancy

 

BOT2221: Environmental Science (15 lecture hrs)
Fundamentals of environmental science, Environmental pollution and contamination, Major forms of pollution sources, Impacts and control, Eutrophication, Special environmental problems in Sri Lanka, Global environmental issues with special reference to Sri Lanka, Introduction to waste treatment methods, Bioremediation

 

BOT2231: Soil- Plant Relationships (15 lecture hrs)
Physical and chemical characteristics of soil, , Macro- and micro- nutrients in soil, Toxic elements in soil, Factors affecting availability and uptake of nutrients, Soil organic matter and its dynamics, Interaction between plant roots and microorganisms, Soil and plant nutrient analysis, Major soil types of Sri Lanka, Soil Conservation and sustainable management of soil  

 

BOT2241: Botany Practicals IV (45 hrs)
Laboratory exercises and field visits on BOT2212, BOT2221 and BOT2231

 

 

Level III
               
Semester I

BOT3112: Advanced Plant Ecology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Op for students following
      Biological Science Stream, Prerequisite: Botany core courses
Historical aspects of plant ecology, Ecological processes in plant communities, Predation and mutualism, Competition, Major Biomes, Community concept, Community classification and Ordination, Community dynamics (succession and climax), Fire ecology

 

BOT3122: Horticulture, Floriculture and Landscaping (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs)
Op for students following Biological Science Stream
Divisions of horticulture, Advantageous and limitations, Classification of horticultural plants, Plant propagation methods, Cultivation of horticultural plants, Nurseries, Application of hydroponics in horticulture, Cut flower production, Landscaping, Designing, Installing and maintenance, Nursery production, Post-planting immediate care, Pruning and training of plants

 

BOT3132: Advanced Microbiology (20 lecture hrs+24 practical hrs) Op for students following
Biological Science Stream, Prerequisite: Botany core courses
Plant-microbe interactions (rhizosphere, phyllosphere, role in disease resistance), Ecology of microorganisms (interactions with environment, role in biogeochemical cycles)

 

BOT3142: Advanced Plant Pathology (15 lecture hrs + 30 practical hrs) Op students following
 Biological Science Stream
Molecular plant pathology - Genetics of host-pathogen interactions (gene for gene interaction, recognition and triggering resistance), Hypersensitive Reaction (HR), Induced resistance in plants (local and systemic), Putative signal transduction pathways towards systemic resistance, Biotechnology in plant protection (Diagnosis, detection, transgenics etc.) Ecological plant pathology – Epidemiology, Disease forecasting, Plant disease management (chemical, cultural, biological control, etc. and integrated approaches)

 

BOT3151: Cropping Systems (15 lecture hrs) Op for students following Biological Science Stream
Shifting cultivation, Tree crop systems in tropics, Agroforestry, Tropical grasslands, Dry farming, Irrigation farming, Rice farming, Problems associated with permanent land use in tropics, Sustainable use of cropping systems.

 

BOT3162: Forestry (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op for students following Biological Science
          Stream
Forest classification and biomass, Forest mensuration, The use of Remote sensing and GIS in forestry, Silviculture and different silviculture systems, Forest resource management, Economic uses and ecological services of forests, Forest policy in Sri Lanka, Forest protection, Forest fires, diseases and pests.

 

BOT3172: Food Technology (25 lecture hrs + 15 practical hrs) Op for students following
                      Biological Science Stream, Prerequisite: Botany core courses
History, Use of microorganisms in food industry, Preservation of food, Nutritional level of food, Post-harvest technology, Genetically engineered food

 

BOT3182: Plant tissue culture (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Op for students following
                      Biological Science Stream
In-vitro methods in plant tissue culture, Micropropagation, Callus and suspension culture, Organ culture, Organogenesis, Embryogenesis, Haploid culture, Somaclonal variation, Protoplast culture, In-vitro production of secondary metabolites, Meristem and shoot tip culture, Protoplasts and cell culture, Bioreactors, Embryo rescue culture, Applications of tissue culture in Sri Lanka, Conservation, Cryopreservation

 

BOT3191: Weed Biology (12 lecture hrs + 06 practical hrs) Op for students following Biological
                      Science Stream
Characteristics of weeds, Classification of weeds, Weed spread and evolution, Impact of weeds, Weed control, Herbicides (application, mechanisms of action, transformations in plants, persistence and behaviour in soil), Invasive species, Paddy field and aquatic weeds


Semester II
BOT3212: Wood Science (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op for students following Biological Science Stream
Terminology, Structure of wood, Physical properties of wood, Mechanical properties of wood, Grading of woods/timber, Common and specific uses of woods, Wood seasoning, Wood preservation

 

BOT3222: Advanced Molecular Biology (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op for students
     Following Biological Science Stream, Prerequisite: BOT2131
Isolation of DNA, RNA and proteins, Quality & quantity assessments, Tools used in molecular biology (enzymes and vectors), DNA sequencing, Probe labelling, PCR techniques, Blotting techniques (Southern, Northern and Western blotting), Detection methods, Electrophoresis techniques, Transposons and their practical applications  

 

BOT3232: Advanced Plant Physiology (25 lecture hrs+15 practical hrs) Op for students
      Following Biological Science Stream, Prerequisite: Botany core courses
Crop establishment and seedling growth, Crop photosynthesis and yield, Metabolic and structural factors influencing photosynthetic rate, Light distribution and canopy structure Limitations of crop yield by weather and climate, Partitioning and remobilization of photosynthetic assimilates, Translocation and source sink relationship, Biochemical adaptations of plants to the environment, Biochemistry of C3 – C4 intermediate species

 

BOT3242: Advanced Environmental Science (20 lecture hrs+21 practical hrs) Op for students
      Following Biological Science Stream, Prerequisite: Botany core courses
Population growth, Decline of vital life support ecosystem, Global atmospheric changes, Loss of biodiversity, Sustainability, Biodiversity – assessment methods, values, threats and conservation. Red data book, Waste management, Agriculture related environmental problems, Bio-indicators and bio-monitoring, Environmental impact assessment (EIA) 

 

BOT3251: Plant Virology (15 lecture hrs) Op for students following Biological
                       Science Stream
History of plant virus, Properties of virus, Chemical nature, Structure of viruses, Virus genome, Infection process, Plant virus diseases and symptoms, Virus identification and diagnosis, Spread of virus in nature, Plant virus disease control

BOT3261: Economic Botany (15 lecture hrs) Op for students following
                      Biological Science Stream
Concepts of economics, Agro-forestry, Mangroves, Medicinal plants, Plantation crops in Sri Lanka, Fruits and vegetables, Fibre and Timber, Spices, oils, gums etc., Algae, Microorganisms

 

BOT3271: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (15 lecture hrs)
Op for students following Biological Science Stream, Prerequisite: BOT3222
History, Gene cloning and expression, In-vitro mutagenesis, Transgenic plants and animals, Agricultural biotechnology, Biotechnology in medicine, Biotechnology in crop protection, Applications molecular tools, Ethics in biotechnology

 

BOT3282: Plant breeding (25 lecture hrs+ 15 practical hrs) Op for students following Biological
                      Science Stream
History of plant breeding, Conventional breeding methods (mass selection, pure line selection, hybridization, single seed descent, backcross breeding, Recurrent selection methods, synthetic varieties), Modern plant breeding methods (molecular markers, quantitative trait loci, gene mapping, selectable marker genes, Genetically engineered plants, protoplast culture techniques, anther culture), Conservation of germplasm

 

BOT3292: Plant Ecophysiology (25 lecture hrs+ 15 practical hrs) Op for students following Biological Science Stream
Plant cell and its environment, Plant growth and plant growth analysis, Interactions between plant life and environmental parameters, Light environment of plants and measurements, Water status and water stress, Methods of assessing water status and water stress, Dendroclimatology, Stable carbon isotope in plant ecophysiology studies

 

 

 


 

Syllabus B.Sc. (Special) Degree

BOT4013: Advanced Plant Ecology (30 lecture hrs + 30 practical hrs)
Quantitative description of vegetation, Sampling, Association between species, Plant communities, Classification, Ordination, Pattern, Habitats and ecosystems of Sri Lanka

 

BOT4022: Horticulture, Floriculture and Landscaping (25 lecture hrs + 15 practical hrs)
Divisions of horticulture, Advantageous and limitations, Classification of horticultural plants, Plant propagation methods, Cultivation of horticultural plants, Nurseries, Application of hydroponics in horticulture, Cut flower production, Principles of landscaping, Designing, Installing and maintenance, Nursery production, Site selection, Selection of plants (Trees, Shrubs, Herbaceous, and Grasses etc.), Post-planting immediate care, Pruning and training of plants, Pruning methods, Pruning tools, Art of Bonsai, Wildlife gardening

BOT4032: Microbial ecology (25 lecture hrs + 15 practical hrs)
Plant-microbe interactions (rhizosphere, phyllosphere, role in disease resistance), Ecology of soil and aquatic microorganisms (interactions with environment, role in biogeochemical cycles), Microbiology of air, Unusual environments, Case studies

 

BOT4042: Applied Microbiology (30 lecture hrs)
Principles of Industrial Microbiology (Properties of the ideal strain, fermentation media and systems (bioreactor designs), downstream processing, product development), Microbes as Living Factories: Biocatalysis of useful Products, Organic synthesis, synthesis of optically pure drugs, antibiotics, polysaccharides and polyesters, microbial biomass, food additives etc., Microbial Enzymes (production and application), Food and Beverage Fermentation, Microbes and Energy, Biomass to fuels (ethanol, methane), bacterial batteries, Environmental Applications (Biodegradation and bioremediation, sewage and wastewater treatment, mineral recovery, biodeterioration), Medical microbiology

 

BOT4053: Advanced Plant Pathology (30 lecture hrs + 30 practical hrs)
Molecular plant pathology- Genetics of host-pathogen interactions (gene for gene interaction, recognition and triggering resistance), Hypersensitive reaction (oxidative burst, cell death), Induced resistance in plants (local and systemic), Putative signal transduction pathways towards systemic resistance, Biotechnology in plant protection (Diagnosis, transgenics etc.), Diseases caused by proteins, Molecular tools used in plant pathology
Ecological plant pathology - Disease assessment, Epidemiology, Disease forecasting, Plant disease management (chemical, cultural, biological control, etc. and integrated approaches)

 

BOT4062: Advanced Molecular Biology (25 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs)
Isolation of DNA, RNA and proteins, Quality & quantity assessments, Tools used in molecular biology (enzymes and vectors), DNA sequencing, Probe labelling, PCR techniques, Southern, Northern and Western blotting, Detection methods, Electrophoresis techniques and their practical applications, Human genome project, Transposons and their practical applications, Seminars in molecular biology, Genome organization, Transcription in eukaryotes, Post transcriptional modifications   

 

BOT4072: Economic Botany and Entrepreneurship (30 lecture hrs)
Concepts of economics, Agro forestry, Mangroves, Medicinal plants, Plantation crops in Sri Lanka, Fruits and vegetables, Fibre and Timber, Spices, oils, gums etc., Algae, Microorganisms, Concepts of entrepreneurship, Excursions

 

BOT4083: Forestry and Forest Management (30 lecture hrs + 30 practical hrs)
Forest classification and Biomes, Forest mensuration, The use of Remote sensing and GIS in forestry, Silviculture and different silvicultural systems, Forest planning, Forest resource management, Uses of forests, Forest policy in Sri Lanka, Forest protection, Forest fires, diseases and pests, Agro forestry, Invasive plants

 

BOT4092: Food Technology (25 lecture hrs +15 practical hrs) Optional for students following Special Degree in Botany
History, Use of microorganisms in food industry, Preservation of food, Nutritional level of food, Post-harvest technology, Genetically-engineered food, Food production and processing and packaging, Properties of food, Food nutrition and consumption

 

BOT4102: Plant Tissue Culture (25 lecture hrs + 15 practical hrs)
In vitro methods in plant tissue, Micropropagation, Callus and suspension cultures, Organ cultures, Organogenesis, Embryogenesis, Haploid cultures, Protoplast cultures, Somaclonal variation, Protoplast culture, In vitro production of secondary metabolites, Virus free plants and Rejuvenation, Applications of tissue culture in Sri Lanka, Conservation, Cryopreservation

 

BOT4112: Weed Biology and management (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs)
Introduction, Characteristics of weeds, Weed spread and evolution, Problems and Losses Caused by Weeds, Weed control: Herbicides (application, mechanisms of action, transformations in plants, persistence and behaviour in soil, Environmental Fate of Herbicides, Herbicide Behaviour in Plants, Herbicide Formulations, Herbicide Families and Characteristics, Developing a Weed Management Program, Herbicide Resistance), Organic Weed Management, Weed Management in Selected Crops, Vegetables, and Turf, Invasive species, Paddy field and aquatic weeds

 

BOT4122: Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (30 lecture hrs)


History of biotechnology, Gene cloning and expression, In vitro mutagenesis, Transgenic plants and animals, Agricultural biotechnology, Biotechnology in medicine, Biotechnology in crop protection, Applications molecular tools, Ethics in biotechnology, Seminars

 

BOT4133: Advanced Plant Physiology (35 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs)
Crop photosynthesis and yield, Metabolic and structural factors influencing photosynthetic rate, Light distribution and canopy structure, Limitations of crop yield by weather and climate, Partitioning and re-mobilization of photosynthetic assimilates, Translocation and source sink relationship, Biochemical adaptations of plants to the environment, Biochemistry of C3 – C4 intermediate species, Calcium in plants and its role of controlling stomatal function, Secondary plant metabolites

 

BOT4142: Advanced Environmental Science (25 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Optional for students following Special Degree in Botany
The global environment – (population growth, decline of vital life support ecosystems, global atmospheric changes, loss of biodiversity), Sustainability, Biodiversity – (assessment methods, values, threats and conservation), Red data book, Waste management, Agriculture related environmental problems, Bio-indicators and bio-monitoring, Principles of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Legal aspects of EIA, Challenges of EIA, Legal aspects of environmental pollution in Sri Lanka

 

BOT4152: Advanced Plant Virology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Optional for students following Special Degree in Botany
History of plant virus, Properties of virus, Principles of electron microscope techniques, Characteristics of plant viruses, Virus genome, Infection process and virus synthesis, Translocation and distribution of viruses in plants, Physiology of virus-infected plants, Plant virus diseases and symptoms, Detection and identification of plant viruses, Transmission of plant viruses in nature, Plant virus disease control, Plant diseases caused by viroids and phytoplasma

 

BOT4162: Wood Science and technology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs)
Terminology, Structure of wood, Physical properties of wood, Mechanical properties of wood, Identification of wood species, Defects of woods, Grading of woods/timber, Common and specific uses of wood, Wood seasoning, Wood preservation, Wood based industries in Sri Lanka

BOT4172: Techniques in Plant breeding (25 lecture hrs + 15 practical hrs)
History of plant breeding, Conventional breeding methods (mass selection, pure line selection, hybridization, single seed descent, backcross breeding, recurrent selection methods, synthetic varieties), Modern plant breeding methods (molecular markers, quantitative trait loci, gene mapping, selectable marker genes, Protoplast culture techniques, anther culture),

 

BOT4181: Herbarium Methodologies(15 lecture hrs)
Herbaria and Herbarium Specimens, Annotation of herbarium specimens, Annotation of type specimens, Bibliography of literature useful to the study of plants in Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka plant collecting: regulations and permitting, Preparation of plant specimens for deposit as herbarium vouchers (Students are required to collect prescribed number of specimens and submit as a herbarium collection at the end of the second year of the Special Degree programme)

 

BOT4192: Advanced Plant Systematic (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs)
Species concept, Phenotypic plasticity and polymorphism, Importance of plant systematics, Taxonomic data: morphological, anatomical, embryological, palynological, phonological, cytogenetics, phytochemistry and reproductive biology in plant systematics, Introduction to plant molecular systematics: different methods and molecular markers, analysis of molecular data, Herbarium methods and filed techniques, Assignments on plant collections and preparing herbarium specimens

BOT4202: Ecotoxicology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs) Optional for students following Special Degree in Botany
Basic concepts and terminology, Toxicology and its branches, Classification of toxins/ toxicants, Toxicity and toxicity testing, Factors affecting the toxicity’ Toxicity of mixtures of toxicants, Performance criteria in toxicity tests, Hazard and risk assessments, Environmental fate of toxicants, Bioindicators and biomarkers, Biotoxins with special reference to algal and cyanobacterial toxins

 

BOT4213: Biostatistics (30 lecture hrs + 30 practical hrs)
MAS3223 conducted by the Department of mathematics and practicals with computer software applications which includes; Fundamental concepts in probability, Random variables, Means, Variance and expected values, Classification and description of sample data, Sampling distributions, Estimations, Hypothesis testing, Regression analysis, Analysis of variance, Scientific applications, Exercises with applications of computer software for data analysis

BOT4223: Molecular evolution and Phylogenetics (30 lecture hrs + 30 practical hrs)
Molecular evolution, Gene substitution, Gene fixation, Multiple hits, Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Nucleotide diversity, DNA sequence alignment, Sequence analysis, Tajima’s D statistics, Molecular clock, Molecular phylogeny, Phylogenetic trees, Species tree VS gene tree, Methods of tree building (Distance, Parsimony and Likelihood); UPGMA, NJ, ML, MP trees, Bootstrap analysis, Use of computer software for sequence alignment, editing and analysis, Genbank searching

 

BOT4232: Plant Ecophysiology (25 lecture hrs + 15 practical hrs) Optional for students following Special Degree in Botany
Plant cell and its environment, Plant growth and plant growth analysis, Interactions between plant life and environmental parameters, Light environment of plants and measurements, Water status and water stress, Methods of assessing water status and water stress, Dendroclimatology, Stable carbon isotope in plant ecophysiology studies

 

BOT4242: Seed Physiology and Technology (20 lecture hrs + 21 practical hrs)
Seed morphology, Orthodox and recalcitrant seeds, Planting value of seeds, Seed germination, Physical, biochemical and performance tests for seed quality, Seed deterioration, Seed processing, Soil seed bank, Seed longevity, Seed health, seed processing


BOT4252: Training in proper use of equipment (90 practical hrs)
Microscope (light, phase contrast, fluorescent, microphotography), Photo printing, pH meter, Column chromatography, PCR machine and related equipment, DNA/RNA hybridization equipment, Lyophilizer, TLC, HPLC, GLC, and other chromatographic techniques, Soxhlet extractor, Growth chamber etc.


BOT4262: Scientific Report writing and Seminars
BOT4276:  Research project
Each student will be required to conduct a research project related to his/her field of specialization during the fourth year. The project should be approved by the Department. Students are expected to complete the research during the last semester.  The candidate must submit the results as a dissertation and present a seminar.

 

Optional course modules from other Departments that are approved for Botany Special Degree

 

ZOO4092: Conservation and Management of Biological Resources (30 lecture hrs + 30practical hrs) 

ZOO4164: Conservation and Management of Environment (30 lecture hrs + 60 practical hrs)